Kodein-Log usage

Kodein-Log allows to easily log any message, with a simple API. This guide is meant to walk you through all you need to know and use Kodein-Log.

Kodein-Log API is the same for all the Kotlin/Multiplatform targets. However, under the hood each platform uses its own implementation (see default frontends).

Logger

Creating a logger is really simple. Before logging a message you need to express some parameters to help the logger to:

  • identify the logged entry, with a Tag, like org.kodein.documentation.MyController

  • send the logged entry to the right output: console / file / platform specific logging system

create a simple Logger
Logger(
    tag = Logger.Tag("org.kodein.log.documentation", "MyController"), (1)
    frontEnds = listOf(defaultLogFrontend) (2)
). info { "Hey!" } (3)
1 will identify any message logged with this Logger by prefixing them with this tag
2 defines on which outputs the logged messages should be sent.
3 log the following line: INFO: 2021-04-01T12:20:37.648603 | org.kodein.log.documentation.MyController: Hey!

You can also use the companion function Logger.from<T> to create a logger.

Logger.from(defaultLogFrontend) (1)
1 Type receiver is inferred at compile time and automatically passed as tag argument to a new Logger instance.
You can share the configuration of your application’s loggers by using a factory.

Tags

As define above we know that a Tag help us identify our logged message. A Tag is always shaped in two parts, a package and a class name.

There are two ways of creating a Tag, you can either create it manually using String arguments, or a given KClass.

Create a Tag manually
Tag(pckg = "org.kodein.log.documentation", name = "MyController")
Create a Tag from a class
Tag(MyController::class)

The Tag can be inferred by Kotlin type system when using one of the extension functions:

  • Logger.from(vararg frontends: LogFrontend)

  • LoggerFactory.newLogger()

  • T.newLogger(factory: LoggerFactory)

More details in factory section.

Default frontends

Kodein-Log is lightweight because it is just a facade that we plug on top of logging systems. Frontends represent the implementations of the logging systems that Kodein-Log relies on to output your logs, depending on the platform your application is running on.

The main reason behind Kodein-Log existence is that we want to provide an easy way of logging for Kotlin/Multiplatform developers, without worrying about the platform specifics. Therefore, Kodein-Log has the notion of default frontends, that hide behind the expect/actual mechanism, sending the logs to the right output, depending on the actual platform. Those implementations are accessible with the property defaultLogFrontend.

use default log frontend
Logger.from(defaultLogFrontend) (1)
1 Use the specific frontend defined by Kodein-Log

Here is a table that expose which implementation are used, by targeted platform.

Targeted platform Frontend implementation

JVM

SLF4J

Android

Android Log

Apple

  • iOS

  • macOS

  • watchOS

  • tvOS

Apple OSLog

Other Kotlin/Native targets

  • Linux

  • Windows

System standard output

Kotlin/JS

JavaScript console log

Remember that you can define your own frontends.

Severity

As for any logging library Kodein-Log provide different severities to log messages:

  • logger.debug("Hey!")DEBUG: <TIME> | <TAG>: Hey!

  • logger.info("Hey!")INFO: <TIME> | <TAG>: Hey!

  • logger.warning("Hey!")WARNING: <TIME> | <TAG>: Hey!

  • logger.error("Hey!")ERROR: <TIME> | <TAG>: Hey!

You can filter the level of log output by using a LogFilter:

val logger = Logger.from(
    frontends = listOf(defaultLogFrontend),
    filters = listOf(minimumLevel(Logger.Level.WARNING)), (1)
)
logger.info { "Hey!" } (2)
logger.warning { "Its me." } (3)
1 define the minimum severity to WARNING
2 WON’T be logged
3 WILL be logged

Share a configuration across your application’s loggers

This section is for you if you intend to use Kodein-Log for more than one Logger using the same configuration. Having multiple loggers with identical configuration in you codebase could end like in the following snippet:

// MyController.kt
val ctrlLogger = Logger(Logger.Tag(MyController::class), listOf(defaultLogFrontend))
// MyRepository.kt
val repoLogger = Logger(Logger.Tag(MyRepository::class), listOf(defaultLogFrontend))
// ...

This can be easily fixed this by using a LoggerFactory.

Create a LoggerFactory with a shared configuration
val factory = LoggerFactory(listOf(defaultLogFrontend), /* filters = listOf(...), mappers = listOf(...) */ ) (1)
//        or  LoggerFactory(defaultLogFrontend) (1)
//        or  LoggerFactory.default (2)
1 You can use your own frontends, filters and mappers.
2 Quick access to a LoggerFactory via the defaultLogFrontend.
Like for the Logger, the LoggerFactory can work with multiple frontends, filters and mappers.

Then, you can create as many Logger as needed with the different newLogger functions.

Create a Logger from a LoggerFactory
        factory.newLogger(Logger.Tag(MyRepository::class)) (1)
//  or  factory.newLogger(MyRepository::class) (2)
//  or  factory.newLogger<MyRepository>() (3)
/*  or
        class MyRepository(loggerFactory: LoggerFactory) {
            val logger = newLogger(loggerFactory) (4)
        }
*/
1 Creates and passes a Tag.
2 Uses a KClass that will be mapped as a Tag.
3 Uses a type parameter, that will be mapped as a Tag.
4 Type parameter is inferred by Kotlin at compile time and used to create a Tag.

Filter the log outputs

Sometimes you may need to control what message should or should not be logged. In that regard we provide a simple API, LogFilter, that will help to either restrain some outputs, or even add some extra information.

You can use pre-package features or declare custom filters.

Allow or block a list of tags / packages

To output only some messages, or just block some of them we can use the functions allowList or bockList.

Allow tags / packages
val allowList = allowList( (1)
      listOf(Logger.Tag(String::class)), (2)
      listOf("org.kodein.log"), (3)
)
val factory = LoggerFactory(listOf(defaultLogFrontend), listOf(allowList)) (4)

newLogger(factory).info { "Hey!" } (5)
factory.newLogger<String>().warning { "I know a String." } (5)
factory.newLogger<Int>().error { "I know an Int." } (6)
1 allowList will block every log but the ones that match the tag / package filters.
2 Logs with the given tags can be sent to the log output.
3 Logs with the given packages can be sent to the log output.
4 Add the filter to a LoggerFactory
5 Match the filters; WILL be logged
6 Doesn’t match the filters; WON’T be logged
Output
   INFO: 2021-04-02T13:27:06.460152 | org.kodein.log.MyController: Hey!
WARNING: 2021-04-02T13:27:06.485639 | java.lang.String: I know a String.
Block tags / packages
val blockList = blockList( (1)
      listOf(Logger.Tag(String::class)), (2)
      listOf("org.kodein.log"), (3)
)
val factory = LoggerFactory(listOf(defaultLogFrontend), listOf(blockList)) (4)

newLogger(factory).info { "Hey!" } (5)
factory.newLogger<String>().warning { "I know a String." } (5)
factory.newLogger<Int>().error { "I know an Int." } (6)
1 blockList will allow every log but the ones that match the tag / package filters.
2 Logs with the given tags won’t be sent to the log output.
3 Logs with the given packages won’t be sent to the log output.
4 Add the filter to a LoggerFactory
5 Match the filters; WON’T be logged
6 Doesn’t match the filters; WILL be logged
Output
ERROR: 2021-04-02T13:28:54.201783 | java.lang.Integer: I know an Int.
By filtering a Tag or a package, Kodein-Log might ignore WARNING and ERROR messages.

Adding the stacktrace for each log

In case of emergency: Break glass.

While debugging your application you might need some extra information to really understand what’s going on. Adding the filter logStackTrace to your logger configuration will print out the current stack trace that goes with EVERY logging message of your application. Even if it can appear as an handy feature, it is very sloooow! So you should not use is in production.

val factory = LoggerFactory(listOf(defaultLogFrontend), listOf(logStackTrace)) (1)
newLogger(factory).info { "Hey!" } (2)
1 Activate the logStackTrace filter.
2 Prints "Hey!" with its accompanying stack trace.
Output
   INFO: 2021-04-02T13:42:51.593390 | org.kodein.log.MyController: Hey!
                                      logStackTrace: org.kodein.log.filter.entry.StacktraceKt$logStackTrace$1.filter(stacktrace.kt:7)
org.kodein.log.Logger.createEntry(Logger.kt:52)
org.kodein.log.MyController.run(MyController.kt:51)
java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:62)
java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
java.base/java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:566)
      [...]
This MUST NOT be used in production, its purpose is for debug only!

Create your own filters

If existing filters do not fit your needs you can create your own. For example, let’s create a filter that will ignore every log that match a certain Tag.

ignore every logging entry for tags that contains "Controller"
val controllerFilter = LogFilter { tag, entry ->  (1)
    if (tag.name.contains("Controller")) null else entry
}

val factory = LoggerFactory(listOf(defaultLogFrontend), listOf(controllerFilter)) (2)
factory.newLogger<MyController>().info { "Hey!" } (3)
factory.newLogger<String>().warning { "It's me." } (4)
1 Create a LogFilter.
2 Add the filter to the LoggerFactory configuraiton.
3 WON’T be logged as the tag name contains "Controller".
4 WILL be logged.
Output
WARNING: 2021-04-02T13:55:17.876630 | java.lang.String: It's me.

Transform the log outputs

In some cases we need to transform the outputs to reduce the load of the logs, add some extras, or even shrink some sensitive information.

Package shortener

We usally don’t need to bloat our logs with an infinite chain of package names. Let’s take an example, where we don’t shrink the package names.

val factory = LoggerFactory(
    listOf(defaultLogFrontend),
)
factory.newLogger<MyController>().info { "Hey!" }
This will output the following line
INFO: 2021-04-02T14:56:22.145831 | org.kodein.log.MyController: Hey!

Considering our context, we clearly know that we are working on org.kodein libraries, so we could reduce those package names, by keeping only the last one, log:

shrink every package names execpet the last one
val factory = LoggerFactory(
    listOf(defaultLogFrontend.withShortPackageKeepLast(1)),
)
factory.newLogger<MyController>().info { "Hey!" }
Output
INFO: 2021-04-02T14:57:41.825104 | o.k.log.MyController: Hey!

On the contrary you might want to drop only the first package names:

shrink only the first package name
val factory = LoggerFactory(
    listOf(defaultLogFrontend.withShortPackageShortenFirst(1)),
)
factory.newLogger<MyController>().info { "Hey!" }
Output
INFO: 2021-04-02T14:57:23.595224 | o.kodein.log.MyController: Hey!

Or, we also can reduce our logs by narrowing all the package names.

shrink every pacakge name
val factory = LoggerFactory(
    listOf(defaultLogFrontend.withShortPackages()),
)
factory.newLogger<MyController>().info { "Hey!" }
Output
INFO: 2021-04-02T14:56:50.371374 | o.k.l.MyController: Hey!

Prefix

If you work with multiple instances of a class, you might want to distinguish every instances by adding a prefix to its outputs.

adding a prefix in the log configuration
val factory = LoggerFactory(
    listOf(defaultLogFrontend.withShortPackage()),
    mappers = listOf(prefix("API 1 - ")) (1)
)
factory.newLogger<MyController>().apply {
    info { "User says hello!" } (2)
    debug { "User created secret key." } (2)
}
1 "API 1 - " will be added as a prefix of each log
2 will be prefixed
Output
 INFO: 2021-04-02T14:53:56.599228 | o.k.l.MyController: API 1 - User says hello!
DEBUG: 2021-04-02T14:53:56.630881 | o.k.l.MyController: API 1 - User created secret key.

Replace

This one is handy, as you can replace any String or any pattern in all your logs. For example, you can avoid leaking secrets:

val factory = LoggerFactory(
    listOf(defaultLogFrontend.withShortPackage()),
    mappers = listOf(replace("0123456789abcedf", "[SECRET]")) (1)
)
factory.newLogger<MyController>().apply {
      info { "User says hello!" } (2)
      debug { "User created secret key 0123456789abcedf." } (3)
}
1 the given password should be replace by a proper placeholder
2 logged as usual
3 actual secret will be replaced by "[SECRET]"
Output
 INFO: 2021-04-02T14:51:19.343563 | o.k.l.MyController: User says hello!
DEBUG: 2021-04-02T14:51:19.365966 | o.k.l.MyController: User created secret key [SECRET].

Create your own mappers

Again, if existing mappers does not work for you, you can create your own. Here is an example of a secret mapper, that will hide a given list of secrets in the output logs:

val secretMapper: (Collection<String>) -> LogMapper = { secrets ->
      LogMapper { _, _, message -> (1)
          secrets.fold(message) { m, s ->
              m.replace(s, "******") (2)
          }
      }
}

val factory = LoggerFactory(
    listOf(defaultLogFrontend.withShortPackage()),
    mappers = listOf(secretMapper(listOf("p4ssw0rd", "0123456789abcedf", "#12345#"))) (3)
)
factory.newLogger<MyController>().apply {
    info { "User says hello!" } (4)
    debug { "User created secret key 0123456789abcedf." } (5)
    warning { "User changed secret key p4ssw0rd." } (5)
    error { "User failed login with secret key #12345#." } (5)
}
1 create the LogMapper
2 replace every secret by
3 apply the filter with a given list of secrets
4 logged as usual
5 every secrets are hidden (see output below)
Output
   INFO: 2021-04-02T14:49:49.670548 | o.k.l.MyController: User says hello!
  DEBUG: 2021-04-02T14:49:49.693085 | o.k.l.MyController: User created secret key ******.
WARNING: 2021-04-02T14:49:49.693454 | o.k.l.MyController: User changed secret key ******.
  ERROR: 2021-04-02T14:49:49.694518 | o.k.l.MyController: User failed login with secret key ******.